Friday, February 7, 2020

Philosophies address the commonplaces of law concerning authority and Essay

Philosophies address the commonplaces of law concerning authority and the common good - Essay Example But the study of law is neither science nor metaphysics; since law is a normative phenomenon, there must always be a practical reason for studying law. As a normative construct, law attempts to correct human behaviors according to some norm. It is the attempt to determine this normative facet of law that troubles both law-makers and philosophers of law. As we see in modern philosophies of law, there are two primary ways of understanding the normativity of law, which are based either on a natural law tradition (represented primarily by L.L. Fuller), and legal positivism, which attempts to break laws down into social facts, as opposed to facts of nature. The natural law tradition as it applies to the philosophy of law is represented primarily by the 20th century philosopher L.L. Fuller, who developed eight ways to fail for any legal system in his work The Morality of Law (1967) . On Fuller’s word, if any of the eight normative principles are not represented within a government, a system will not be â€Å"legal†. Fuller argues for these principles to the extent that they represent the â€Å"internal morality of law† and that one is guided by such principles to create just laws, and straying from them makes one liable to creating evil laws (Fuller, 1967, p. 39). To that extent, Fuller seems to be following St. Augustine, a natural law philosopher, who said famously, â€Å"Unjust law is not law† (Marmor, 2001). On Fuller’s view, proper laws cannot be made without some reference to morality, making it a natural law thesis. Legal positivism stands opposed to the natural law tradition, rejecting any natural basis for laws in â€Å"natural facts† for morality. H.L.A. Hart, who belongs to the legal positivist tradition, adheres to the (2) conventionality thesis, thinks conditions for legal validity exist within standards of recognition that produce best practices in making or modifying law. These stand because they are

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Relationships Between Society and Religion Essay Example for Free

Relationships Between Society and Religion Essay The relationship between religion and society has provided the focus for some of the greatest works of sociology (one thinks of Durkheim, Pareto, and Weber, as well as Marx and Parsons). Samuel Delbert, a Canadian sociologist, rebelled against what he saw as the static concerns of American sociologists, trained his eyes on the process of social change, and placed the study of religion as a major item on the agenda of social analysis in Canada. In three important works, Clark argues that the changing structure of religious organization provided a measure of the pace and character of social change. Clark undoubtedly made the study of religion an important topic in Canadian sociology. At the same time, however, his work intended to limit the range of sociological concerns by linking the study of religion to questions of the forms of religious organization and politics (Artibise, 1990). The Essence of Religion In order to further understand the context between the relationship between religion and society, it becomes clear only after we have determined the basic essence of religion, that which is common to them all. Many different attempts to conceptualize the essence of religions have been made. These definitions usually reflect the viewpoint of the defining subject more than the essence of the defined object. When, for instance, Immanuel Kant defines religion as the â€Å"fulfillment of all of our duties as divine commands,† this doesn’t reflect the essence of religion which is concerned with a completely different sphere, but rather the rationalistic standpoint of Kant, for whom religion is essentially theonomic ethics. Often the essence of a specific historical religion is held up as the ideal and norm for all religion (Mensching, 1976). Prophecy presupposes a relationship between religion and society that conflicts profoundly with established religion. Established religion sees religion as the sacred ideology of the established social order. It is the â€Å"handmaiden† of the ruling class. It pronounces the established social order to be created by God and to be a reflection of the divine will (Riemer, 1996). The Founding Fathers In their sociological writing, Marx, Weber, and Durkheim were responding to the economic and social changes of the 19th and early 20th centuries, timely more often than not by the disastrous effects that fleeting industrialization had imposed on the European community of which they were sector. The course of religion could scarcely be averted with this foundation, for religion was seen as an important area of the society that seemed to be shifting beyond identification. By at least a period, Karl Marx (1818-83) predates the other. There are known two important factors in the Marxist thoughts on religion: The first is descriptive, the second evaluative. His dependent variable is religion; in other words, its structure and nature are liable on social and most importantly economic relations, which constitute the foundation of social examination. It can never be understood separate from the economic form and the association of the capitalist or worker to the basis of formulation. The second factor connects from this however, has an assessing component. Religion is said to be a form of indifference or alienation; it is a symptom of social malformation which disguises the exploitative relationships of capitalist society. Religion persuades people that such relationships are natural and, therefore, acceptable. It follows that the real causes of social distress cannot be tackled until the religious element in society is stripped away to reveal the injustices of the capitalist system; everything else is a distraction. Subsequent debates concerning Marx/s approach to religion have to be approached with care. It has become increasingly difficult to distinguish between (a) Marx’s own analysis of religious phenomena, (b) a subsequent school of Marxism as a form of sociological thinking, and (c) what has occurred in the twentieth century in the name of Marxism as a political ideology. The essential and enduring point to grasp from Marx himself us that religion cannot be understood apart from the world of which it is a part; this is a crucial sociological insight and central to the evolution of the sub discipline. It needs, however, to be distinguished from an over deterministic interpretation of Marx that postulates the dependence of religion on economic forces in mechanical terms; this is unhelpful. The final point is more political. It may indeed be the case that one function of religion is to mitigate the very evident hardships of this world and so disguise them.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Leadership :: essays research papers

are in an election year, and it is during such time candidates running for office love to discuss subjects that are in the public eye. The latest topic among candidates stumping for political office is the decline of the American family. Many candidates address different aspects of this issue, but few politicians offer real solutions. I believe it is not the role of the federal government to legislate solutions for the problem's families face within our country today. This responsibility belongs to individual men who should work to protect and strengthen their family. Steve Farrar’s book, Point Man, takes on the issue of male leadership and the importance it plays in the home. He tackles the issue from a Biblical perspective; offering insight from God’s word throughout his book. The author writes, â€Å"If hundreds of thousands of men seriously began to lead their own homes, the impact on America would be far greater than one Christian man leading in the White House.à ¢â‚¬  Steve Farrar takes a hard hitting approach from the very beginning the book by stressing the important role men play in the lives of their families. They are the â€Å"Point men," who must take up the lead and guide their families through the war zone; protecting them from the enemy. Farrar shows the casualty list is real by listing the most recent statistics for divorce, and teenage pregnancy. The emphasis in the second chapter deals with, â€Å"Saving the boys.† Today’s little boys will grow to be tomorrow’s leaders, and husbands. He identifies the importance of a man spending time with his children, by emphasizing the significance of physical and emotional support a child needs from a parent. The author quickly shifts from a mans relationship with his children to the one he shares with his wife. He writes about how commitment has become cheap in our society, and is only kept if it is convenient. Farrar contrasts this attitude with the Biblical truth of lifelong commitment. A â€Å"One-Woman Kind of Man,† remains faithful by always considering what his eyes see and mind thinks about. He deals directly with the seriousness of adultery, choosing not to tip-toe around the subject like society has chosen to do. While dealing with this topic the author provides valuable insights of how men can guard against the pitfall of this sin. The two key chapters of this book have to do with a mans personal relationship with God.

Monday, January 13, 2020

The kinds of influences that affect children and young people

2.1 describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people.Different kinds of influences within each areaExample of how the influence could affect children and young people BackgroundParent and child stable relationship, love, affection, family values, quality time It could affect their future relationships with partners and also their own children but if they do receive its showing them how a parent / com/explaining-of-the-child-protection-in-the-wider-concept-of-safeguarding-children-and-young-people/">child relationships should and can be because they went through it themselves and experienced, that sort of goes both ways with background either bad or good can affect them.HealthIllness or disabilitiesIt separates them from others and can affect their sense of belonging where they are not able to join in with other children and could possibly influence them to believe they might not ever fit in, whether it be sports, jobs or social events in adult life .EnvironmentMoving to a new house/area Worried and anxious to whether they will settle in and make new friends. Miss their old friends and family. If always moving there’s no stability or structure which can affect their sense of normality and less likely to stick at things. If to a better area it can help them in many ways better education, health facilities, better opportunities for their future. TDA 2.1 LO 2.2 describe with examples the importance of recognising and responding to concerns The Importance of recognising and responding to concernsIf a problem was not recognised and responded to quickly enough that problem could escalate and become much more worse than originally and could be much harder to help out, more damage could be done.Example of concern How would you respond?A child not eating lunchTell a senior member of staff while volunteering but if employed I would also tell senior members of staff and will look further into it and will speak to child parents.A ch ild taking food from other childrenSame as above in that sense.A child being bulliedSame as above but will also speak to the bully’s parent/s.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Formulation And Evaluation Of Bi Layer Matrix Tablets

Formulation and Evaluation of Bi-Layer Matrix Tablets Containing Amoxicillin and Pantoprazole an Oral Modified Release Dosage Form for Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Sudhanshu K Chakravati1, Javed Khan Pathan1, Sapna Malviya1, Anil Kharia1 Modern Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Indore (MP) ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to formulate a dual therapy of peptic ulcer containing antimicrobial agent amoxicillin and anti-secretory agent pantoprazole, utilizing the concept of bi-layer tablet system for the effective treatment of H. pylori associated gastric/duodenal ulcer, in an attempt to improve bioavailability and to get maximum therapeutic benefits and patient compliance about the treatment. Different formulas of 575 mg amoxicillin were prepared as sustained release layer by wet granulation method and different formulas of 40 mg pantoprazole in form of immeadeaye release was prepared as extended release matrix layer by direct compression technique. The results showed that formulas prepared with Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC K100M) and xanthan gum and acasia as binder was capable to retard the release of Amoxicillin and Pantoprazole for 12 hr and 8hr respectably which according to dosing frequency of amoxicillin in treatment of peptic ulcer (twice daily) it will prev ent drug free interval so achieve complete eradication of H. pylori, thus it was selected for preparation of bi-layer tablet. Regarding Pantoprazole, formula PS-6 (which consist of HPMC K 15 M,Show MoreRelatedThe Human Gastrointestinal Track Is A Complex Time9513 Words   |  39 Pagesinterest in multiple-layered tablets as an oral controlled release System has increased. Multiple-layered tablets have some advantages Compared to conventional tablets. Commonly used to no chemical Incompatibilities of formulation components by physical separation. Release profiles of drug may depend on combining layers with different release patterns, and by combination of slow-release with immediate-release layers. Conte and Maggi have described an oral controlled-release tablet called Geomatrix, whichRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words   |  1351 Pagesand the development of strategy The competitive intelligence system The development of a competitive stance: the potential for eth ical conflict Summary CONTENTS vii Stage Two: Where do we want to be? Strategic direction and strategic formulation 7 Missions and objectives 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Learning objectives Introduction The purpose of planning Establishing the corporate mission Influences on objectives and strategy Guidelines for establishing objectives and setting goals

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Diabetes A Common And Well Known Disease - 1564 Words

Introduction Diabetes is a common and well-known disease in the US. Healthcare providers manage the care of patients daily as both direct and indirect effects of diabetes contribute to their poor health. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is characterized by high blood sugar levels as a result of insulin resistance. The risk factors associated with an increasing prevalence in the US includes genetics, family history, poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity.1 Healthcare providers are challenged to assess each diabetic patient’s limitations and address the issues that impact the ability to control their diabetes. Treatment adherence is a constant issue in the management of patients. In primary care settings, it is not uncommon for the providers to observe a significant percentage of poor compliance to treatment plans and subsequent poor control of blood sugar measured by HgA1c within their patient population. The high prevalence of this disease in the US emphasizes the need to increase treatment adherence and promote self-management. How can providers improve their practices to achieve better rates of adherence and maximize healthy outcomes? How do we further address the multiple factors playing a role in patient outcomes? In this performance improvement plan, one physician assistant student in a primary care practice focuses on addressing patient barriers and social/situational factors during each visit to empower self-management of patients’ diabetes. Literature ReviewShow MoreRelatedDiabetes : A Common And Well Known Disease That Affects People Of Different Ages1548 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract This paper explores the three different types of Diabetes, a common and well-known disease that affects people of different ages. It explains the difference between Type 1, Type 2, and Gestational Diabetes and how prevalent it is in today’s generation. A sudden spike in a person’s blood sugar numerous times is an indication that a person has developed this disease. There are countless of people that are not fully aware of what a consistent rise in blood sugar can do to a person’s body.Read MoreDiabetes As A Western Disease1489 Words   |  6 Pagesenergy, some may make us sluggish and lazy. Diabetes has been around for decades, as the increase in assortment of food and different varieties have become assessable to individuals globally, we have been dealt with a larger problem than many predicated. Diabetes started as a western disease has made its way to being a global problem with many organizations leading the fight to find ways to reduce the epidemic. While many may disagree that the disease has reach its apex and have already spread,Read MoreDiabetes : Type 1 And Type 2 Essay1710 Words   |  7 PagesDiabetes is a disease where the body is unable to produce or use insulin effectively. Insulin is needed for proper storage and use of carbohydrates. Without it, blood sugar levels can become too high or too low, resulting in a diabetic emergency. It affects about 7.8% of the population. The incidence of diabetes is known to increase with age. It’s the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in the US, and is the primary cause of blindness and foot and leg amputation. It is known to cause neuropathyRead MoreDiabetes : A Growing Issue1149 Words   |  5 PagesDiabetes mellitus has been a growing issue in the United States. Type 2 diabetes has been in the spotlight due to the rapidly increasing numbers of obese Americans. Many people suffering from type 2 diabetes can control or overcome the disease by adopting a healthier lifesty le. Unfortunately, not all diabetics can correct or prevent the problem with better diet and exercise. Type 1 diabetes can affect anyone; including people with a healthy lifestyle. At this time, there is no known cure for TypeRead MoreDiabetes : Diabetes And Type Two Diabetes1688 Words   |  7 Pagesglucose levels results in the disease that is broken down into two main types, type one diabetes and type two diabetes. Type one diabetes is an autoimmune disease, meaning a disease in which the body s immune system attacks healthy cells, that causes the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas to be destroyed. The immune system, by mistake, attacks its own insulin-producing cells so that insufficient amounts of insulin are produced or no insulin at all. Type one diabetes is also referred to as insulinRead MoreDiabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes1628 Words   |  7 PagesDiabetes mellitus type 2, also know as type 2 Diabetes or noninsulin dependent diabetes, is a disease that effect s the body systemically. Type 2 diabetes is a disorder in which cells become resistant to insulin and can no longer bind it properly to reduce blood sugar. The result of this is elevated glucose levels in the circulating blood that leads to endothelial injury in all regions of the body. Primary damages occur in the kidneys, cardiovascular, and digestive systems. According to â€Å"Annual NumberRead MoreDiabetes : An Incurable Disease1707 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"29.1 million people in the United States have diabetes, 8.1 million of whom may be undiagnosed or unaware of their condition.† (healthline.com). Diabetes is an incurable disease that is caused by unstable levels of blood sugar in the cells that could later result in heart failure, kidney diseases, or even an amputation. There are two types of diabetes, Type 1 and Type 2. The two differentiate when it comes to how the insulin itself if being effected. What is insulin? Insulin is a peptide hormoneRead MoreThe Health And Economic Consequences Of Diabetes1594 Words   |  7 Pages Diabetes affects 18.2 million people in the United States. It is often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus and described as, â€Å"†¦ a metabolic disease in which the person has high blood sugar †¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Collazo- Clavell et all. 2009), either because the insulin is inadequate or the body’s cells don’t respond well to the insulin. The health and economic consequences of diabetes are considerable. The majority of people that have diabetes live in low and middle income countries, where the prevalenceRead MoreDiabetes Mellitus : Type 1 Diabetes1017 Words   |  5 PagesBushaw Diabetes Mellitus: Type 1 Diabetes Research Paper 11/16/2014 Diabetes Mellitus also known as—Juvenile Onset Diabetes, Type 1 Diabetes, and Insulin Dependent Diabetes. It is a chronic autoimmune disease described by high blood glucose levels due to insulin levels being inadequate to maintain normal glucose levels. This research paper will discuss the symptoms and signs, etiology, who it triggers, how it happen, and treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. Symptoms and signs of Type 1 Diabetes are hyperglycemiaRead MoreDiabetes Mellitus : The Most Common Disorder Of The Endocrine System957 Words   |  4 PagesDiabetes Mellitus stems from the Greek word diabetes, which means to siphon, or to pass through. Mellitus is Latin for sweet or honeyed. Diabetes Mellitus is the most common disorder of the Endocrine System. The pancreas is an organ behind the stomach that produces a hormone called insulin. When this happens, our liver compensates by increasing glucose production from amino acids and glycogen causing hyperglycemia. There are different types of diabetes; however, this paper strictly focuses on Type